Cities are growing in terms of economic activities, space and population thus overspilling inperi urban areas. Low threshold population densities and low land values have made the periurban areas the target for land acquisition to accommodate planned expansion processes. InTanzania, the Government initiated the 20,000 Plots Project in 2002 to among others, addresscritical shortage of planned and surveyed plots in the city, check proliferation of informalsettlements and alleviate poverty. The Project was implemented in 12 areas in the City of Dar esSalaam, one of them being Wazo-Mivumoni. This area was chosen as a laboratory for thisstudy. This study aims to understand the processes and impacts of land acquisition on thelivelihoods of peri urban households. It builds an understanding of peri urban areas in theTanzanian context and proceeds to contextualize peri urban livelihoods in Wazo-Mivumoni, theprocesses of land acquisition and impacts that ensued implementation process.Data was collected through official, households and key informants interviews as well asdocumentary review. An overarching understanding was drawn from the National Constitution(1977) and land acquisition statutes that provides for the right of residents to own properties; theright to protection of properties; and payment of fair and adequate compensation subject to lawfully acquisition.
Although the principal legislations for land acquisition provide for payment of market values inland acquisition, the study revealed that government-regulated rates were instead used. Further,the implementation process was characterized by lack of appreciation of the drivers of periurban livelihoods, non-adherence to legal provisions, non-observarance of professional ethicsand lack of “human face”. On the other hand, the laws were found to be insufficient toadequately respond to present social and economic conditions. The implementation of theproject amidst these conditions resulted to loss of assets, disruption of social networks andfamily ties; thereby undermining households capacities to sustain livelihoods after projectimplementation. Among the strategies adopted to overcome the impacts include intensificationand increased innovation on farming and animal keeping; reliance on family support as well asreduction of family size. Despite these shortcomings, some positive impacts that includesestablishment of new economic activities such as private schools, retail business, hardware’s,access to planned and surveyed plots, cultural diversity due increase of migrants were realized.To remedy the situation, the study calls for residents participation and awareness creationproject impacts on and after implementation, establishment of a land cadastre to realise effectiveand efficient land administration system in consonance with the recognition of market value forland, establishment of a neutral system to verify valuation reports as well as provision ofalternative plots as a measure to restore affected households to same condition as prior toacquisition.
Key words: peri urban area, livelihoods, land acquisition and market value. Author’s address: Daniel Eliwaha Msangi, SLU, Department of Urban and Rural Development,P.O. Box 7012 SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden.E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org